You may be wondering what all of those **sums of squares** are all about. Maybe that’s what got you here in the first place. Well, they are the determinants of a good linear **regression**. This tutorial is based on the ANOVA framework you may have heard before.

Before reading it, though, make sure you are not mistaking **regression** for **correlation**. If you’ve got this checked, we can get straight into the action.

A quick side-note: Want to learn more about linear regression? Check out our explainer videos The Linear Regression Model. Geometrical Representation and The Simple Linear Regression Model.

## SST, SSR, SSE: Definition and Formulas

There are three terms we must define. The **sum of squares total**, the **sum of squares regression**, and the **sum of squares error**.

**What is the SST?**

The **sum of squares total**, denoted **SST**, is the squared differences between the observed *dependent variable* and its **mean**. You can think of this as the dispersion of the observed variables around the **mean** – much like the **variance** in descriptive statistics.

It is a measure of the total variability of the dataset.

**Side note**: There is another notation for the **SST**. It is **TSS** or **total sum of squares**.

**What is the SSR?**

The second term is the **sum of squares due to regression**, or **SSR**. It is the sum of the differences between the *predicted* value and the **mean** of the *dependent variable*. Think of it as a measure that describes how well our line fits the data.

If this value of **SSR** is equal to the **sum of squares total**, it means our **regression** **model** captures all the observed variability and is perfect. Once again, we have to mention that another common notation is **ESS** or **explained sum of squares**.

**What is the SSE?**

The last term is the **sum of squares error**, or **SSE**. The error is the difference between the *observed* value and the *predicted* value.

We usually want to minimize the error. The smaller the error, the better the estimation power of the **regression**. Finally, I should add that it is also known as **RSS** or **residual sum of squares**. Residual as in: remaining or unexplained.

**The Confusion between the Different Abbreviations**

It becomes really confusing because some people denote it as **SSR**. This makes it unclear whether we are talking about the **sum of squares due to regression** or **sum of squared residuals**.

In any case, neither of these are universally adopted, so the confusion remains and we’ll have to live with it.

Simply remember that the two notations are **SST**, **SSR**, **SSE**, or **TSS**, **ESS**, **RSS**.

There’s a conflict regarding the abbreviations, but not about the concept and its application. So, let’s focus on that.

**How Are They Related?**

Mathematically, **SST** = **SSR** + **SSE**.

The rationale is the following: the total variability of the data set is equal to the variability explained by the **regression line** plus the unexplained variability, known as error.

Given a constant total variability, a lower error will cause a better **regression**. Conversely, a higher error will cause a less powerful **regression**. And that’s what you must remember, no matter the notation.

## Next Step: The R-squared

Well, if you are not sure why we need all those **sums of squares**, we have just the right tool for you. The **R-squared. **Care to learn more? Just dive into the linked tutorial where you will understand how it measures the explanatory power of a linear regression!

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**Next Tutorial: **Measuring Variability with the R-squared